Friday, April 24, 2009


Oludeyi Olukunle Saheed.
Industrial and Labour Relations
Sociological Studies Department.

Early in October 2008 which serves as the beginning of the 2008/2009 academic session in Ijagun, the topic of discussion among students, and both academic and non academic staff of TASUED was the issue of paradigm shift to Omu-Ijebu. Some reacted positively to this social phenomenon while others reacted negatively. But, as social scientist (in training) my, intension is to examine the socio-academic effect of this paradigm shift on NCE students of TASCE.
This paper therefore endeavours to spell out and give lucid definition to some concepts such as Paradigm Shift, Social Paradigm, Social Change and Social Balkanization. Following this is real exigency that necessitated paradigm shift to Omu-Ijebu under which we identify why the need for NCE students to move to Omu-Ijebu in the first place. It goes further to examine the problem encountered by students as a result of this paradigm shift. The paper also does not leave behind the theoretical extrapolation which underpines the above paradigm as postulated by Thomas Kuhn, a philosopher who theorized on “Paradigm Shift”. A good and reliable recommendation was trade towards the end of this write up.
The shortcoming of this paper however is that it lacks enough references, this is as a result of the fact that all claims made in this paper are personal findings.
The Classical Scholars in the field of sociology and the emerging social scientist have objectively observed and theorerised that what they referred to as “Social Change” is a paramount phenomenon that is inevitable in human social life and social relationships. Social change therefore becomes such a prevalent and often disturbing feature of contemporary life that the extent at which the rate of changes in modern world are greater than in the past. Certainly, all societies, institutions, individuals and groups experience a certain amount of change in their social structure and culture overtime.
Adegbola A. A. in Fagehinbo A. O. (2004) contends that “societies cannot remain stable because they are in contact with other societies which do things somewhat differently” and even better than another. In the same vain, social relationship, pattern, structure or what we may term “social paradigm” be it in school, in polity, economy, religion and all facet of life is expected to experience some “changes” at some point in time. This is why it is not a surprise that the paradigm shift in TASUED educational programme emerged. The intension of this paper therefore is to rigorously examine the social and educational effect of this shift on students of TASUED especially the recent Ijagun-Omu-Ijebu shift.
1. PARADIGM: This is a typical example of the ways and manner in which things are done or conceptualized. The patterns, in which a particular phenomenon is done, perceived and structured.
2. PARADIGM SHIFT: Any significant change in the way or in the manner, in which things are done, perceived or structured. Paradigm shift explains a great and important change or alteration in the pattern of things, events, phenomena etc. are done or thought about. Such change therefore necessarily brings a remarkable effect. In the context of this write up, paradigm shift is the transformation that took place in TASUED program which necessitated the need for NCE student to relocate in Omu-Ijebu.
3. SOCIAL PARADIGM: A typical example of the kind of social relationship that exists among individuals and groups in a society or an institution. It is the ways and manner in which individuals and group perceived themselves the pattern with which they relate with each other and the consequence of such pattern of relationship in any social setting. Social paradigm in this paper therefore connotes the traditional inter-personal relationship that has ever existed in TASUED before the advent of Degree program.
4. SOCIAL CHANGE: Rogers (1969) defined social change as the process by which alterations occur in the structure and function of a social system. Social system in this definition may be social group, a community, a city, a region or nation. Any change that occur in the patterns of social action and interaction, including consequence and manifestation of such change to social actors. In the context of this paper, “social-academic” change refers to alteration in social conditions of students in their academic endeavour which occur as a result of changes or modification in the policies and program of an educational institution. Example is the advancement in TASUED academic program from NCE to Degree program.
5. BALKANIZATION OF SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS: This refers to a situation in which a division is created in any social group into two different social groups in such a way that there are unfriendly and aggressive relationships among these two groups. Any sort of division among students which is characterized by a continuous antagonistic or rivalry relationship among students. Such balkanized relationship is what existed among NCE and Degree students in Ijagun, the rivalry of superiority became the other of the day.
Unfortunately, Kuhn is vague on what he meant by a “Paradigm”. According to Magnet Master man (1970), Kuhn used the term in at least twenty-one different ways “I will employ a definition of paradigm that I feel is true to the sense and spirit of Kuhn’s early work” (Ritzer, 2008) a paradigm serve to differentiate one scientific (or educational) community from another. It can be used to differentiate Physics from Chemistry or Sociology from Psychology. These fields have different paradigms. It also can be used to differentiate between different historical stages in the development of science (and improvement in educational standards such as that TASUED). The paradigm that dominated in the early twentieth century. There is a third stage of the paradigm concept and it is the one that is most useful here in this paper. Paradigm, in this paper, differentiates educational institution. In the same vain, it is expedient to state or prognosticate here that there can occur in TASUED what is called “Multiple Paradigm” in the future. This is because contemporary psychoanalysis, for example, is differentiated into Freudian, Jungian and Horneyian paradigms to mention a few (Ritzer, 2008). This means that there will be multiple paradigms in TASUED in the nearest future when post-graduate and doctorate degree programmes will be introduced.
Suffix to say that, it will be inadequate if we fail to analyze, identify and spell out some of the factors that necessitated the need for NCE students to shift from Ijagun to Omu-Ijebu for academic continuity. It is worthy of note at this juncture that the dominant factor that engineered all other change and alterations in the then TASCE is the “establishment of FASUED in January 2005”. From the inception, what is known as TASUED today was Ogun State College of Education (OSCE) which later became Tai Solarin College of Education (TASCE). The real need for these changes in nomenclature resulted from the need to advance the school academic program and establish a specialized university of education that in autonomously can award Degree certificate to students.
However, it is not the intension of the school management to put the traditional NCE program into extinction. Rather, the intension is for the same school to run the two programs (i.e. NCE and Degree) simultaneously. The management therefore resorted at relocating the NCE program under the name “TASCE” to Omu-Ijebu campus and keep Degree program under the name “TASUED” in Ijagun campus. The rationale behind this is that when this transformation took place, it attracted a larger population of students from all parts of the country who developed interest in studying in the first university that specializes on Education and Pedagogical training in Nigeria.
Resulting from this large pull of students are some of the problems listed below:
- Over population and congestion
- Inadequate classrooms and educational materials
- Increased number of accommodation seeker resulting in high cost of living/accommodation for students
- Inappropriate combination of curriculum for the two programs (NCE and Degree)
- Rivalry of superiority among Degree and NCE students
- Balkanization of social relationship among TASUED students
- Among others
As a result of the above problems, it became necessary for the school management to separate “Paul from Banabas”. This is the reason why the NCE students who hitherto resided in Ijagun had to relocate in Omu-Ijebu for academic continuity so that they can be exposed to those newly established facilities and newly designed curriculum that goes in congruence with NCE program in Omu. This change is what we refer to as PARADIGM SHIFT in this write up which has enormous effect on NCE students.
It should be pointed out here that the paradigm shift to Omu-Ijebu by NCE students has enormous effects on both the social and financial status of the students which in turn pose serious academic challenges to students. Some student found this shift very difficult to cope with while others view it as an academic activity that is inevitable. Nevertheless, the change in environment has effect on those students. Some of these problems posed by this shift are explained below.
(1.) FINANCIAL PROBLEM: A change in environment by student is a big task which cost so much. This is because of there had not been any cause for students to change environment, there wouldn’t have been any cause for them to pay a rent in advance, with what the presently reigning landlords/ladies called “agreement fee”. Apart from paying in advance, students who hired new rooms will no doubt need to recognize such room, furnish it, paint it, run some electrical appliances and even spend money to do some little renovations in the room. All these are money consuming and as such it becomes a problem to students who only get meager from parents and family friends to survive. The effect of this problem is that students will have no sufficient fund to enhance their academic pursuit, there will be no money to buy text book, browse on internet, not even enough money to buy foodstuff. All these no doubt will affect their academic program and performance in school.
(2.) INADEQUATE CLASSROOM AND EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS: This is another problem that the NCE students are presently facing. This problem which emanated from the paradigm shift is a type that the school management only makes a small arrangement to create lacuna between the Degree students and NCE students. As such, an NCE student complained bitterly that they suffer a lot when receiving or about to receive lecture. This is because they usually often time move on a far distance to receive lecture. A student who learns under so much stress may not achieve anything in any class he/she attend.
(3.) TRANSPORTATION: Another area of note is the menace of transportation. Before this shift occur, the total amount of money a single students who, reside in Ijebu-Ode would spend would be sixty naira (N60) only tow and fro. But with this paradigm shift, students have to spend a total amount of hundred naira (N100). Although this is also akin to financial constraint but the point here is that adequate transportatonal facilities has not been put in place by the school management to rescue students from this problem. This may affect a students performance in such a cases where he could not afford such money at a fingertip, such student may even get to an examination center late all in the name of transportation.
(4.) NONE AVAILABILITY OF LABORATORY AND SCIENCE EQUIPMENTS: Students from Omu are still saddled with this problem. Many a time, they had to move down from Omu campus to Ijagun campus to make use of science complex and laboratory to facilitate their studies. For students who don’t have the charisma to go through these hectic end, problem of studying may set in. the effect is that students who face this kind of problem tend to loose their interest in studying.
(5.) INADEQUATE SPACE FOR EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES: In the discipline of pedagogy, learning objectives is divided into three main taxonomy among which “Psychomotor” domain is an important domain. It is found in Omu-Ijebu campus that there has not been enough space and facilities to foster physical activities such as soccer, athletics, etc. and all the sport activities, these are also important in students learning environment because they prevent “fatigue” and keep the student to grow both physically and mentally.
(6.) FAR-REMOVED RELATIONSHIP: Of note among the effect of paradigm shift on NCE students is of the fact that some of these students who from inception have formed groups who read together, study together, solve problems such as assignment together and ultimately, unite together to heal themselves of examination fever. Sometimes these groups of students have fallen in love with each other to provide such things as food, money and all other necessary things that members of the group may be lacking. The most painful aspect of it is that these students may form a group that will include both NCE and Degree students, with the shift to Omu-Ijebu, this kind of groups are bound to break and such relationship that existed among this students which is characterized with “we-feeling” will be adversely affected and such relationship then turn to be a “far-removed” relationship. Some of these NCE students reported that to cope with these break in friendship and mingle with another set of students pose serious challenge to them and such has profound effect on students’ social interaction and academic endeavours.

The scenario of paradigm shift that occur in Ijagun-Omu campus can be analyzed and explained extrapolating from the metatheorectical scheme for analyzing sociological phenomena or theory as put forward by George Ritzer in 2008. Ritzer analyses the idea of an important philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn whose work was basically to examine and explain “the structure of Scientific Revolution”. Inherent in his writing (i.e. Thomas Kuhn) is also to use scientific innovations and advancement as a dependent variable or yardstick that engineered all major “paradigm shift” in the society i.e. science played a pivotal role in the creation of several paradigm shift in the society just the same way curricular change and the shift in programme (from NCE to Degree) played an important role in the emergence of “Ijagun-Omu paradigm shift”.
First, science occurred to advance human kind in the society, Degree program also came in Ijagun in order to expand and advance the school programme and students academy. Second. Scientific innovations attracts people of the world to become rational (Rationality from Weber’s perspective) and endeavour to explore all opportunities in order to attain high class in the society, this is the same way the emergence of Degree program in Ijagun attracted a large pull of candidates seeking admission into the University (TASUED). Third, the level of rationality by people make them to create another paradigm in the society just in the same way the large population of students in TASUED tempted the school management to create the necessary dichotomy between NCE and Degree students which we refer to as the paradigm shift in this paper.
In a nutshell, science brought some anomalies that paved way for a shift in paradigm in society just the same way the emergence of Degree program in Ijagun campus brought about balkanized relationships among students which necessitated the shift in paradigm (i.e. the necessary drift from Ijagun to Omu-Ijebu campus by NCE students).
In a nutshell, it could be argued that there is a cause-effect relationship in the emergence of Degree programme in Ijagun. In other words, the cause for the school management to advance school programe and academic curriculum necessitated certain educational policies formulated by the school authority which no doubt, inevitably has enormouse effect on students of the citadel of learning. The effects of this policies (paradigm shift) to a larger extent are problematic and challenging to students socio-academic status. Some of the problems encountered by students are financial problem, lack of infrastructural facilities, lack of space for extracurricular activities and the widening of far-remove relationship among students.
Towards the concluding part of this write-up, are the recommendations to the school management to strive and make available all the mentioned problem posed by the effect of paradigm shift to NCE students. It is expedient to state here that though there are highlighted effects of this shift on students, yet the shift is targeted towards advancing students academic programme which to a larger extent and in the long run (i.e. their life after school) will benefit the student and the society at large.

Fagehinbo M. O. (2004) “Topics in Tertiary Social Studies” Lucky Odoni (Nig) Enterprises, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State.
George Ritzer (2008) “Sociological Theories” McGraw Hill Higher Education, 1221 Avenue of the Americans, New York, NY10020.
Kunle Ogunbameru (2006) “Men and His Social Environment a Test of Sociology” Spectrum Books Limited, Ibadan.
Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2006) “Seventh Edition” Oxford University Press, UK